65 Health Risks of GM FoodsSection 2: Gene insertion disrupts the DNA and can create unpredictable health problems2.1 Foreign genes disrupt the DNA at the insertion site
1. When genes are inserted at random in the DNA, their location can influence their function, as well as the function of natural genes.
2. "Insertion mutations" can scramble, delete or relocate the genetic code near the insertion site.
3. Evaluation of insertion sites have shown relocations of up to 40,000 DNA base pairs, mixing together of foreign and host DNA, large scale deletions of more than a dozen genes and multiple random insertions of foreign DNA fragments.2.2 Growing GM crops using tissue culture can create hundreds or thousands of DNA mutations
1. The process of growing plant cells into GM plants may create hundreds or thousands of mutations throughout the genome.
2. While a change in a single base pair may have serious consequences, widespread changes in the genome can have multiple, interacting effects.
3. Most scientists working in the field are unaware of the extent of these mutations, and no studies have examined genome-wide changes in commercialized GM plants.2.3 Gene insertion creates genome-wide changes in gene expression
1. One study using a micro-array gene chip found that 5% of the host's genes changed their levels of expression after a single gene was inserted.
2. The changes, which are in addition to the deletions and mutations already discussed, are not predictable and have not been fully investigated in the GM crops on the market.
3. These massive changes may have multiple health-related effects.2.4 The promoter may accidentally switch on harmful genes
1. Promoters are switches that turn on genes.
2. The promoter used in nearly all GM crops is designed to permanently turn on the foreign gene at high output.
3. Although scientists had claimed that the promoter would only turn on the foreign gene, it can accidentally turn on other natural plant genes—permanently.
4. These genes may overproduce an allergen, toxin, carcinogen or antinutrient, or regulators that block other genes.2.5 The promoter might switch on a dormant virus in plants
1. When certain viruses infect an organism, they splice themselves into the host's DNA.
2. These embedded viral sequences can be passed on to future generations and even inherited by future species.
3. Most ancient embedded viral sequences become mutated over time, but some may be intact, just not switched on.
4. If the GM promoter is inserted in the vicinity of a dormant virus, it might switch it on, resulting in virus production and a potential catastrophe.2.6 The promoter might create genetic instability and mutations
1. Evidence suggests that the CaMV promoter, used in most GM foods, containsa recombination hotspot.
2. If confirmed, this might result in breakup and recombination of the gene sequence.
3. This instability of the inserted gene material might create unpredicted effects.2.7 Genetic engineering activates mobile DNA, called transposons, which generate mutations
1. In plant DNA, mobile elements called transposons move from place to place, and can lead to mutations.
2. The tissue culture process used in genetic engineering activates transposons, and is a major factor for the resulting genome-wide mutations.
3. Transgenes in commercial GM crops tend to be inserted near transposons.
4. This insertion might alter the transgene expression.2.8 Novel RNA may be harmful to humans and their offspring
1. Small RNA sequences can regulate gene expression, most commonly by silencing genes.
2. RNA is stable, survives digestion and can impact gene expression in mammals that ingest it.
3. The impact can be passed on to future generations.
4. Genetic modification introduces new DNA combinations and mutations, which increase the likelihood that harmful regulatory RNA will be accidentally produced.2.9 Roundup Ready soybeans produce unintentional RNA variations
1. A "stop signal" is placed after the transgene, telling the cell, "STOP TRANSCRIBING AT THIS POINT."
2. The stop is ignored in GM soy, resulting in longer than intended RNA.
3. It is transcribed from a combination of the transgene, an adjacent transgene fragment and a mutated sequence of DNA.
4. The RNA is further rearranged into four variations, any of which may be harmful.
5. The faulty "stop" signal may have triggered the rearrangements.
6. The same "stop" signal is used in other crops, and might lead to similar "read-throughs" and RNA processing.2.10 Changes in proteins can alter thousands of natural chemicals in plants, increasing toxins or reducing phytonutrients
1. Plants produce thousands of chemicals which, if ingested, may fight disease, influence behavior or be toxic.
2. The genome changes described in this section can alter the composition and
concentration of these chemicals.
3. GM soybeans, for example, produce less cancer-fighting isoflavones.
4. Most GM-induced changes in these natural products go undetected.2.11 GM crops have altered levels of nutrients and toxins
1. Numerous studies on GMOs reveal unintended changes in nutrients, toxins, allergens and small molecule products of metabolism.
2. These demonstrate the risks associated with unintended changes that occur due to genetic engineering.
3. Safety assessments are not adequate to guard against potential health risks associated with these changes.Part 1: The Documented Health Risks of Genetically Engineered FoodsSection 3: The protein produced by the inserted gene may create problems
3.1 A gene from a Brazil nut carried allergies into soybeans
3.2 GM proteins in soy, corn and papaya may be allergens
3.3 Bt crops may create allergies and illness
3.4 The Bt in crops is more toxic than the Bt spray
3.5 StarLink corn's built-in pesticide has a "medium likelihood" of being an allergen
3.6 Pollen-sterilizing barnase in GM crops may cause kidney damage
3.7 High lysine corn contains increased toxins and may retard growth
3.8 Cooking high lysine corn may create disease-promoting toxins
3.9 Disease-resistant crops may promote human viruses and other diseasesSection 4: The foreign protein may be different than what is intended
4.1 GM proteins may be misfolded or have added molecules
4.2 Transgenes may be altered during insertion
4.3 Transgenes may be unstable, and rearrange over time
4.4 Transgenes may create more than one protein
4.5 Weather, environmental stress and genetic disposition can significantly change gene expression
4.6 Genetic engineering can disrupt the complex relationships governing gene expressionSection 5: Transfer of genes to gut bacteria, internal organs, or viruses
5.1 In spite of industry claims, transgenes survive the digestion system and can wander
5.2 Transgene design facilitates transfer into gut bacteria
5.3 Transgenes may proliferate in gut bacteria over the long-term
5.4 Transgene transfer to human gut bacteria is confirmed
5.5 GM foods might create antibiotic-resistant diseases
5.6 The promoter can also transfer, and may switch on random genes or viruses
5.7 If Bt genes transfer, they could turn our gut bacteria into living pesticide factories
5.8 Genes may transfer to bacteria in the mouth or throat
5.9 Transfer of viral genes into gut microorganisms may create toxins and weaken peoples' viral defensesSection 6: GM crops may increase environmental toxins and bioaccumulate toxins in the food chain
6.1 Glufosinate-tolerant crops may produce herbicide "inside" our intestines
6.2 Herbicide-tolerant crops increase herbicide use and residues in food
6.3 Tiny amounts of herbicide may act as endocrine disruptors
6.4 GM crops may accumulate environmental toxins or concentrate toxins in milk and meat of GM-fed animals
6.5 Disease-resistant crops may promote new plant viruses, which carry risks for humansSection 7: Other types of GM foods carry risks
7.1 Milk from rbGH treated cows may increase risk of cancer and other diseases
7.2 Milk from rbGH-treated cows likely increases the rate of twin births
7.3 Food additives created from GM microorganisms pose health risksSection 8: Risks are greater for children and newborns
8.1 Pregnant mothers eating GM foods may endanger offspring
8.2 GM foods are more dangerous for children than adultsSection 1: Evidence of reactions in animals and humans
1.1 GM Potatoes Damages Rats (see full content PDF)
1.2 Rats Fed GMO Tomatoes got bleeding stomachs, several died
1.3 Rats Fed Bt Corn had multiple health problems
1.4 Mice Fed GM Bt Potatoes had intestinal damage
1.5 Workers exposed to Bt cotton developed allergies
1.6 Sheep died after grazing in Bt cotton fields
1.7 Inhaled Bt corn pollen may have triggered disease in humans
1.8 Farmers report pigs and cows became sterile from GM corn
1.9 Twelve cows in Germany died mysteriously when fed Bt corn
1.10 Mice fed Roundup Ready soy had liver cell problems
1.11 Mice fed Roundup Ready soy had problems with the pancreas
1.12 Mice fed Roundup Ready soy had unexplained changes in testicular cells
1.13 Roundup Ready Soy Changed Cell Metabolism in Rabbit Organs
1.14 Most offspring of rats fed Roundup Ready soy died within three weeks (see full content PDF)
1.15 Soy allergies skyrocketed in the UK, soon after GM soy was introduced
1.16 Rats fed Roundup Ready canola had heavier livers
1.17 Twice the number of chickens died when fed Liberty Link corn
1.18 GM peas generated an allergic-type inflammatory response in mice
1.19 Eyewitness reports: Animals avoid GMOs
1.20 A GM food supplement killed about 100 peopleFrom M.o.1 -- For the record, this list goes on and on much to my shock. I think you get the picture though. They are KILLING US!!!! Worst of all, they KNOW they are killing us!